Whether you are preparing for a teaching certification and choosing from a plethora of Online TEFL Courses or looking for a quick refresher, here is your brief guide to Present Perfect Continuous.
Present Perfect Progressive, also known as Present Perfect Continuous, is a verb tense that usually refers to an action that started in the past and lasts until the present moment.
have/has + been + verb + ing
Here’s a more detailed explanation: We form Present Perfect Continuous with has (for the third-person singular) or have (all other persons). Then we add been (the past participle of be) and finish with the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb.
Present Perfect Continuous refers to an action that:
- started in the past and is still ongoing
Claire has been travelling for the last two years (She is currently in Canada).
- was just completed and has visible results or effects still relevant to the present
They have been jogging all morning and are too tired to go out.
- expresses annoyance, irritation, anger, or criticism
Who has been using my hairbrush?
Present Perfect Continuous is used to express a continuing or unfinished action. It is worth paying attention to the fact that this tense emphasizes the process or duration of the action.
How to form a negative statement
|Positivehave/has + been +V-ing||Negativehave/has + not + been +V-ing|
|I/you/we/they||You have been playing.||You have not been playing.|
|he/she/it||She has been playing.||She has not been playing.|
To form a negative statement, you need to add the adverb not between have/has and been. In informal situations, you can use contractions: have not — haven’t, has not — hasn’t.
How to form a question
|Yes-No questionhave/has + subject + been +V-ing||Wh-questionquestion word + have/has + subject + been +V-ing|
|I/you/we/they||Have you been playing?||What have you been doing?|
|he/she/it||Has she been playing?||What has she been doing?|
A quick reminder: wh-questions usually start with a what, when, where, who, whom, which, whose, why, and how. Unlike yes-no questions, they ask for additional information.
Among the signal words for Present Perfect Continuous are all day, lately, the whole week, since (1993, etc.), and for (3 years, etc.).
- for puts an emphasis on duration
She has been working as a zoologist for 20 years.
- since indicates the starting point of the action
She has been repairing cars since she was fifteen years old.